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The Geophysical Laboratory was established in 1905 to investigate the processes that control the composition and structure of the Earth as it was known at the time, including developing the underlying physics and chemistry and creating the experimental tools required for the task. Over a century later, this core mission has expanded to include the physics, chemistry, and biology of the Earth over the entire range of conditions our planet has experienced since its formation, as well as parallel studies of other planets of this and other solar systems from their surfaces to their cores.

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Matter at Extreme States
Intense conditions turn nitrogen metallic

New work from a team led by the Geophysical Laboratory’s Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth’s atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. Their findings are published by Nature Communications.

Matter at Extreme States
Revealed: New "playground" for probing fundamental physics questions

The Geophysical Laboratory's Jianjun Ying and Viktor Struzhkin are part of a team that have found an unusual pressure induced PLD in a TMDs-related material SnSe2. Their work is published in Physical Review Letters.